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Study Program

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1-Study Program:

Students enrolled in the Associate Degree in Faculty of Law (FL) must successfully complete the following (130 credit hours) during eight regular semesters.

  Type of Requirements (Req. Type) Requirement Nature (Reg. Nature) Number of Credit Hours
University (U) Elective (EL) 6
Obligatory (Ob) 6
College (C) Elective (EL) 17
  Obligatory (Ob) 23
Department (D) Elective (EL) 42
Obligatory (Ob) 54
Total of Credit Hours 130


In the following table, the names of the courses, their credit hours, the type of prerequisites, the nature of those prerequisites, and their previous requirements are listed:

Course Credit Regiments
No. Name Code Prerequisites Theoretical Lab Total Required Nature Type
1 English Language - Expression Skills ENGL1001 - 3 0 3 6 Ob U
2 English Language - Conversation Skills ENGL2002 ENGL100 3 0 3 Ob U
3 Islamic Culture HUMA1001 - 3 0 3 6 EL U
4 Arabic Language ARAB1005 - 3 0 3 EL U
5 Humanities HUMA1002 - 3 0 3 EL U
6 Communication Skills HUMA1002 - 3 0 3 EL U
7 Constitutional Law and Political Systems LAW111 - 3 0 3 23 Ob C
8 Introduction to Legal Studies LAW102 - 3 0 3 Ob C
9 General Criminal Law (1) LAW103 - 3 0 3 Ob C
10 Public Finance Law LAW104 - 3 0 3 Ob C
11 Civil Law (Named Contracts 1) LAW105 - 3 0 3 Ob C
12 Administrative Law (1) LAW106 - 3 0 3 Ob C
13 Special Criminal Law (1) LAW107 - 3 0 3 Ob C
14 Research Methodology SRM2002 - 2 0 2 Ob C
15 History of Law LAW108 - 3 0 3 17 EL C
16 Political Economy LAW1049 LAW102 3 0 3 EL C
17 Public Administration LAW1050 - 3 0 3 EL C
18 Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence LAW1051 LAW1011 3 0 3 EL C
19 Social Legislation (Cooperative Societies) LAW109 LAW102 3 0 3 EL C
20 Computer Skills COM1001 - 2 0 2 EL C
21 Criminal Science and Punishment LAW1010 LAW103 3 0 3 EL C
22 Introduction to Islamic Legislation LAW1011 - 3 0 3 EL C
23 International Relations and Diplomacy LAW1012 LAW2114 3 0 3 EL C
24 Professional Ethics LAW2046 - 3 0 3 EL C
25 Personal Status Law (Marriage and Divorce) LAW1013 - 3 0 3 54 Ob D
26 Personal Status Law (Inheritance, Endowments, and Wills) LAW2114 LAW2046 3 0 3 Ob D
27 Public International Law LAW1115 - 3 0 3 Ob D
28 General Criminal Law (2) LAW2316 LAW103 3 0 3 Ob D
29 Civil Law (Named Contracts 2) LAW2217 LAW105 3 0 3 Ob D
30 Special Criminal Law (2) LAW2318 LAW107 3 0 3 Ob D
31 Administrative Law (2) LAW2319 LAW106 3 0 3 Ob D
32 Principles of Civil Trials (1) LAW2220 LAW102 3 0 3 Ob D
33 Principles of Civil Trials (2) LAW2221 LAW2319 3 0 3 Ob D
34 Principles of Criminal Trials (1) LAW2322 LAW1115 3 0 3 Ob D
35 Principles of Criminal Trials (2) LAW3423 LAW2221 3 0 3 Ob D
36 Commercial Law (1) (Merchants and Companies) LAW2224 LAW102 3 0 3 Ob D
37 Commercial Law (2) (Negotiable Instruments and Bankruptcy) LAW3325 LAW3423 3 0 3 Ob D
38 Civil Law (Original Property Rights) LAW2226 LAW102 3 0 3 Ob D
39 Civil Law (Derivative Property Rights) LAW2227 LAW3325 3 0 3 Ob D
40 Private International Law 1 (Nationality) LAW2228 LAW102 3 0 3 Ob D
41 Tax Legislation LAW3229 LAW104 3 0 3 Ob D
42 Administrative Judiciary LAW3330 LAW2318 3 0 3 Ob D
43 Transport Law (Land, Sea, Air) LAW3331 LAW2224 3 0 3 24 EL D
44 Private International Law 2 (Conflict of Laws) LAW4332 LAW2227 3 0 3 EL D
45 Labor Law LAW4333 LAW102 3 0 3 EL D
46 Principles of Civil Execution LAW4334 LAW102 3 0 3 EL D
47 Sources of Obligations LAW4335 LAW102 3 0 3 EL D
48 Obligations Law LAW4336 LAW4334 3 0 3 EL D
49 Real Estate Legislation LAW4237 LAW2319 3 0 3 EL D
50 Military Criminal Law LAW4338 LAW1115 3 0 3 EL D
51 Juvenile Delinquents Law LAW4339 LAW1115 3 0 3 EL D
52 Drug Law LAW4240 LAW1115 3 0 3 EL D
53 International Organizations LAW4341 LAW2114 3 0 3 EL D
54 Human Rights LAW2242 LAW2114 3 0 3 EL D
55 Commercial Contracts LAW4243 LAW2224 3 0 3 EL D
56 E-commerce Law LAW4344 LAW2224 3 0 3 EL D
57 International Humanitarian Law LAW3345 LAW2114 3 0 3 EL D
58 Judicial System in Islam LAW2148 - 3 0 3 EL D
59 Crisis and Disaster Management LAW2047 - 3 0 3 EL D
Total Credit Hours 130

3-Courses Descriptions:

  1. English Language 1 (Expression and Writing Skills): This course is designed to prepare students for writing in English and focuses on reading and writing as integrated skills. Students will study and practice reading comprehension, the writing process, and critical thinking. They will create clear and accurate sentences while developing the necessary skills for writing a variety of focused, developed, and organized paragraphs and/or short essays.
  2. English Language 2 (Conversation Skills): This course includes conversations, discussions, and presentations on a wide range of concrete, abstract, and specialized topics. It is designed to enhance speaking and listening skills for non-native English speakers, emphasizing pronunciation, intonation, rhythm, and patterns of American English. Emphasis is placed on oral communication, listening comprehension, and vocabulary development. Students build their skills through intensive instruction and practice.
  3. Islamic Culture: This course covers Sources of Islamic Legislation – Characteristics of Islamic Legislation – Islamic Systems – Family System – Judicial System – Governance System – The Islamic Jurisprudence System – Characteristics of Islamic Legislation in Comparison to Other Systems – Nature of Islamic Education – Goals and Characteristics of Islamic Education – Religious Activities – General Educational Principles in Islamic Education – Principles of Teaching Islamic Education – Rules of Tajweed (Quranic Recitation) – Steps in Teaching Branches of Islamic Education.
  4. Arabic Language: This course is designed to enable students to develop essential Arabic language skills, including proper writing with correct diacritics (Tashkeel), speaking in formal Arabic, eloquent vocabulary, and exploring Arabic poetry by various Arab poets from different historical periods, whether pre-Islamic, early Islamic, Umayyad, or Abbasid. It covers sentence structure, vocabulary analysis, elucidation of rare words, figurative language, prosody, Arabic numerals, and their correspondence with counted nouns, articulation of letters, poetic meters, and the art of poetry composition. It also explores the impact of digital revolution and social media on Arabic language writing styles and the art of rhetoric.
  5. Humanities Civilization: This course covers the concept and significance of civilization, both ancient civilizations and modern Islamic and European civilizations. It covers the factors contributing to their rise and their achievements in various political, economic, social, and scientific fields. The course also examines the peoples of these civilizations and their patterns of human behavior within each civilization.
  6. Communication Skills: The course aims to familiarize students with the concept, types, and levels of communication, as well as the concept of self-awareness. It empowers students to understand and know themselves better. Throughout this course, students study the principles, theories, and factors affecting effective communication. It emphasizes the development of communication skills in various forms and focuses on individual interaction within a group and individual interaction within the environment.
  7. Constitutional Law and Political Systems: This course covers the concept of law and its branches, defining law and explaining the characteristics of legal rules. It delves into the meaning of constitutional law, exploring the political, economic, and social trends that underpin the system of governance. Topics include the scope of authority and freedom, the relationship between constitutional law and other branches of law, constitutional documents, constitutional custom, the origin, types, amendments, and termination of constitutions, the principle of constitutional supremacy, political oversight of the constitutionality of laws, judicial review of the constitutionality of laws, procedures for challenging laws on constitutional grounds, and the protection of human rights in domestic constitutions. The course also discusses international declarations of human rights.
  8. Constitutional Law and Political Systems (Continued): This course continues to explore the concept of law and its branches, defining law and explaining the characteristics of legal rules. It delves into the meaning of constitutional law, exploring the political, economic, and social trends that underpin the system of governance. Topics include the scope of authority and freedom, the relationship between constitutional law and other branches of law, constitutional documents, constitutional custom, the origin, types, amendments, and termination of constitutions, the principle of constitutional supremacy, political oversight of the constitutionality of laws, judicial review of the constitutionality of laws, procedures for challenging laws on constitutional grounds, and the protection of human rights in domestic constitutions. The course also discusses international declarations of human rights.
  9. Introduction to Law: This course is designed to prepare students for the fundamentals of legal principles and systems. It serves as an essential foundation for understanding deeper and more specialized legal concepts. This course covers the following concepts: such as, The role of law in social organization, Imperative rules and complementary or interpretive rules, Law and ethics, The concept of public law and private law, the application of legislation in terms of time and place, or conflicts of laws, The impact of custom on various branches of law, principles of natural law and principles of justice, Judicial interpretation and jurisprudence, and their impact on the development of legal rules, and non-legislative sources of law and their evolution, as well as their influence on the formation of legal principles.
  10. General Criminal Law (Part 1): This course clarifies the nature of legislation, which reflects the philosophy of the ruling authority and its policies. Legislation is the implementation of the strategies and plans set by the state for governance and societal organization. Based on this, it is essential to study traditional, situational, social, and social defense theories within the Syrian criminal system. The Syrian legislator drew on what aligns with the nature of the social environment in Syria, its circumstances, conditions, and the ideological, philosophical, political, social, and economic foundations.
  11. Public Finance Law: This course involves highlighting the fact that the regulation of financial and monetary affairs in the economy is associated with the existence of a strong state. When the state weakens, the role of public spending diminishes, the currency’s value declines, and economic growth in the national economy decreases. Conversely, when the role of the state grows, the size of tax deductions increases, and public spending increases with the aim of establishing public projects and investing in government services.
  12. Civil Law (Named Contracts 1): The aim of this course is to give students the opportunity to understand the fundamental differences between named contracts and unnamed contracts, as well as the legal consequences of each. When a dispute is brought before a judge and it becomes clear that the disputed contract falls under named contracts, the judge must apply the rules specific to that contract. However, if the dispute concerns an unnamed contract, the judge must refer to the general rules in the general theory of obligation to resolve the dispute and Obligations of the lessor and lessee in a lease contract.
  13. Administrative Law (Part 1): It is designed to acquaint the student with the definition of administrative law, the meaning of public administration, and the use of public authority means. Additionally, it aims to explore the origin and evolution of administrative law, emphasizing the concepts related to the characteristics of administrative law in terms of its modernity, flexibility, and rapid development. This course also covers the foundation and scope of administrative law, the legal system of the public entity, administrative organization in the Syrian Arab Republic, including the President of the Republic, Prime Minister, regional and district directors, municipalities, and smaller administrative units, local administration law, its principles and objectives, public funds and privileges, and expropriation.
  14. Criminal Law (Part 1): In this course, students are introduced to the fact that Syrian criminal law, like other legal systems, is divided into two sections: the general section, which includes provisions that establish the general and abstract principles governing crimes and penalties in a general and abstract manner. This section is found in the first book of the Penal Code under the title “General Provisions.” The special section includes provisions that define what the law considers crimes and prescribes penalties for them. In other words, these provisions are concerned with analyzing each crime, specifying its criminal elements, and the resulting punishment. This section is found in the second book of the Penal Code under the title “Crimes.”
  15. Scientific Research and Its Methodology: The aim of this course is to introduce students to the concept of scientific research, how to distinguish between its types, the steps to be followed in scientific research, the components of research, and the role that scientific research can play in making administrative decisions or enacting national laws and legislation. It also covers the entities that can be responsible for conducting scientific research procedures.
  16. History of Law: The goal of studying the history of law is to familiarize students with the general principles and foundations that constitute the comprehensive framework of legal science. This course does not relate, in principle, to a specific branch of law or a specific category of its rules. Instead, its aim is to highlight the general rules and fundamental principles and establish them in the minds of beginner law students.
  17. Political Economy: Economics can be considered a relatively modern science that crystallized with the beginnings of the capitalist system. The development of this science is closely linked to the emergence of the industrial bourgeois revolution in Europe. The use of synonyms for economics in Europe has differed since the emergence of this science. Economics is a body of coordinated knowledge derived from the study of natural and social facts. Therefore, this course aims to provide students with the following economic concepts and knowledge:
  18. Public Administration: This course studies how managers accomplish tasks in organizations that rely on dynamic processes of strategic planning, business development, budgeting, and operations to move their organizations forward and achieve results. It defines the concepts and skills necessary for effective management under constantly changing circumstances. The course reviews a manager’s ability to influence an organization’s direction and performance, and it enhances students’ appreciation for the value of these management activities and their connections to employee performance.
  19. Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence (Usul al-Fiqh): Through this course, students will become acquainted with the rules that Islamic jurists use to deduce practical legal rulings from detailed evidence and with the general rules that encompass partial rulings, such as the rule of commanding what is obligatory and prohibiting what is forbidden. Students will also develop the skill of differentiating between ijtihad (independent legal reasoning) and the rulings that result from it, detailed evidence, the subjects of Islamic jurisprudence, and the purpose of these principles.
  20. Social Legislation (Cooperative Associations): This course aims to introduce students to the idea that cooperation is no longer just a safety net and reformist aspiration practiced through individual experiences. Instead, it has its own system, principles, rules, and local, regional, and international organizations. The cooperative movement now plays a role in various political systems and different countries, even though its role may be modest in some and more active in others. The impact of cooperation is no longer hidden from anyone in the economic and social context, whether for producers or consumers.
  21. Computer Skills: This course aims to discuss basic information related to computer use in education and the employment of computer capabilities in educational and higher education settings, as well as in dealing with basic MS Office applications and working with digital images and editing them using computer applications.
  22. Criminology and Punishment: The goal of this course is for students to understand criminal phenomena, their research problems, and the definition of the concept of criminology, which is the science that deals with the study of these phenomena. It also aims to define the content of crime, the characteristics of the criminal, and the legal means that criminology uses to investigate the facts of this phenomenon. The course covers theories that have been developed to explain criminal behavior and explores various factors that may lead an individual to deviate from societal norms and engage in criminal behavior.
    Acknowledging the reality of criminal phenomena, the course also introduces students to the punitive side as a means of social reaction. It familiarizes students with punitive schools of thought and philosophies that justify criminal sanctions in general. Additionally, students learn about various forms of criminal punishment, problematic aspects of their implementation, and the development of punishment methods throughout history to the present day. The course covers treatment methods within correctional institutions and post-punishment care.
  23. Introduction to Islamic Legislation: In this course, students are introduced to a set of rules and principles ordained by God for His servants. They learn that Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) is the science of the religious legal rulings derived from its detailed sources. Islamic jurisprudence covers all aspects of human activities and behaviors. It is distinguished by being of divine origin, using religious moral guidance, flexibility in terms of time and place, and its collective nature. Islamic jurisprudence is closely linked to faith, aiming to make things easier, facilitate, and remove hardship.
    Students will understand that these advantages are not found in secular laws that primarily aim to maintain public order, sometimes at the expense of ethical and religious values. The course includes definitions of Sharia, fiqh, and their characteristics, sources of legislation in Islamic jurisprudence, historical legislative roles of Islamic jurisprudence, and general principles in Islamic jurisprudence.
  24. International Relations and Diplomacy: This course aims to introduce students to the fact that human societies cannot live in isolation from each other. Humanity has been bound by the need for mutual benefit and interests, which increase with the development of societies themselves and their means in the fields of peace and war. Consequently, the phenomenon of envoys and ambassadors existed in ancient societies. In the context of Islamic jurisprudence, messengers held special importance and status due to their role in conveying the Islamic message to kings and emperors, urging them to adopt the Islamic faith. This was the nucleus for establishing relations between states, exchanging diplomatic missions, granting diplomatic immunities and privileges when states emerged. Simultaneously, there were mobile trade missions to exchange commercial interests between these societies, which laid the foundation for consular relations in the future.
  25. Professional Ethics: Law is one of the fundamental pillars that contribute to the progress and development of societies. It holds a prominent place among advanced countries and serves as the primary tool for building capabilities, developing human resources, and imparting knowledge and skills that enable individuals and communities to compete locally and internationally, as well as to deal with society in all its aspects. This is particularly crucial given the changes happening at local, regional, and global levels. These changes necessitate a review of administrative and institutional outputs, as well as their working methods, to assess their production efficiency and their ability to provide excellent management and advanced institutions capable of achieving comprehensive development at both individual and legal system levels.
  26. Personal Status Law “Marriage and Divorce”: This course covers a set of general rules and provisions regulated by the Personal Status Law. It addresses issues related to personal matters and defines the rules governing engagement, marriage contracts, their implications, the rights and duties of spouses, divorce, its types, and its implications. Additionally, it examines birth-related matters, such as lineage, breastfeeding, and custody.
  27. Personal Status Law “Inheritance, Endowment, and Bequests”: This course aims to clarify concepts related to legal capacity and its types, legal capacity restrictions and their types, restrictions that do not reduce legal capacity but affect certain provisions, legal representation of others, guardianship, guardianship of minors, legal agency, judicial agency, wills, obligatory wills, wills by benefits, competing wills, inheritance rules, the legitimacy of inheritance in Islamic law, reasons for and obstacles to inheritance, inheritance conditions, rights related to inheritance, degrees of heirs in entitlement to inheritance, inheritance by obligation, male heirs with obligations, female heirs with obligations, inheritance through testamentary disposition, relative inheritance, types of relative inheritance, exclusion and its types, exclusion rules, conditions of inheritance, principles of inheritance for close relatives, inheritance due to pregnancy, inheritance due to missing persons, inheritance of intersex individuals, definition of endowment (waqf) linguistically and legally, the wisdom behind the legality of endowment, endowment wordings and their types, location of the endowment and its conditions, differentiation between endowment and bequest, management of endowment affairs.
  28. Public International Law: This course aims to clarify the concept of international law for students by emphasizing that international law emerged to protect and safeguard the interests of communities. Its importance has increased in the current era to ensure the minimum level of security and peace in the world. After the end of World War II and the increase in communication between states, interests became interconnected. Different types of relations, including political, economic, social, environmental, and cultural, emerged. The goal of public international law shifted towards strengthening ties and cooperation between nations and achieving comprehensive development in all areas. This is done through peaceful dispute resolution methods, respect for state sovereignty, non-interference in internal affairs, and avoiding the use of force in international relations. Cooperation with international organizations, particularly the United Nations and its relevant bodies, is crucial to achieving the global peace that humanity aspires to.
  29. General Criminal Law (Part 2): Through this course, students can observe that the theory of punishment forms the second part of the general theory of criminal law, alongside the theory of crime found in the first part of this theory. The placement of the theory of punishment after the theory of crime in academic study is logical, as punishing an individual requires them to commit a crime first. If this person is convicted of the crime before a competent court, the judge should then proceed directly to apply the punishment stipulated for this crime in the legal text.
  30. Special Criminal Law (Part 2): The study of the special section of criminal law requires, first and foremost, defining criminal law in general and determining the relationship between its special and general sections in order to establish the boundaries between them. The special section consists of rules and regulations that define each crime individually, such as murder, theft, or conspiracy. It defines and identifies the elements that distinguish each crime, outlines the associated circumstances, and specifies the prescribed punishment, involving a comprehensive analysis of the offense. The special section is considered more practical and subject to modification than the general section, and it is characterized by diversity and change, as it changes with time and place.
  31. Administrative Law (2): This course aims to introduce students to public servants, defined as anyone working in a public service facility managed by a public legal entity on a permanent basis. Individuals can only enter public service if they meet the conditions specified by the law, such as nationality, a clean legal record, educational qualifications, age, etc. There are specific legal methods for entering public service, including competitions, exams, and pre-employment training.
  32. Civil Procedure Principles (1): Civil procedure law plays a crucial role in safeguarding and protecting rights within the civil justice system, including commercial, labor, and sharia disputes. It defines a set of rules that regulate various aspects of civil litigation, such as the types of courts, their jurisdictions, case management, lawsuit and defense procedures, evidence, different types of judgments, appeal procedures, execution, and the settlement of legal positions resulting from lawsuits.
  33. Civil Procedure Principles (2): This course aims to familiarize students with the concept of judicial decisions, which are procedural acts that hold a significant place in the civil justice system. Judicial decisions are issued by the courts, which constitute one of the three branches of government and are responsible for resolving disputes between individuals by applying the law. The course covers various aspects of judicial decisions, including their conditions, validity, types, and legal implications.
  34. Principles of Criminal Procedure (1): Criminal law is divided into two sections: the first section contains substantive rules that deal with defining crimes and the penalties for committing them. This section is referred to as “Criminal Law.” The second section contains procedural rules that the state should follow to ensure the right to punishment. This section is known as “Principles of Criminal Procedure.” The Principles of Criminal Procedure are of great importance because they aim to reconcile two challenging rights: society’s right to identify the perpetrator of a crime and impose penalties and the individual’s right to defend themselves and prove their innocence. The judge in criminal cases is not restricted to a specific method of proof, and evidence can be presented in various ways.
  35. Principles of Criminal Procedure (2): The initial investigation phase is a preliminary stage that precedes the filing of a public case. During this stage, the officers of the judiciary conduct procedures to identify the accused person after learning about a crime. Proof in public cases involves demonstrating the occurrence of the crime and attributing it to the accused. In the criminal court, judges are not bound by a specific method of proof. Therefore, evidence can be presented using various methods. The trial aims to examine the evidence gathered to reveal the truth and make a decision on the guilt or innocence of the accused. This phase is characterized by principles that aim to achieve criminal justice, ensure the accused’s right to defend themselves, and emphasize openness, transparency, and oral proceedings.
  36. Commercial Law 1 (Merchant and Companies): Commercial law is characterized by its personal nature, focusing on merchants and commercial transactions among them. It establishes the system of the commercial register, which requires the registration of merchants’ names and information about their businesses in specific records. The commercial register serves as a legal framework for various categories of traders and ensures the transfer and protection of commercial trade names to prevent confusion in business names. Commercial law is not limited to individuals with legal capacity; it also applies to anyone engaged in commercial activities. Additionally, it subjects public sector institutions and companies with commercial objectives to its provisions.
  37. Commercial Law 2 (Commercial Papers and Bills of Exchange): Commercial papers play a crucial role in the world of commerce. They facilitate transactions between individuals and stimulate the movement of wealth. Their practical functions are secured through various roles, and they serve as instruments that reduce the need for physical cash transactions while also serving as credit instruments. Commercial papers are specific forms of documents that can be traded using commercial methods and represent a specific amount of money due upon presentation or at a short future date. There are three main types of commercial papers: promissory notes, bills of exchange, and checks.
  38. Civil Law (Original Proprietary Rights): In general, a right is the entitlement of an individual to a specific privilege or a protected value under the law. Rights can be financial, non-financial, or a combination of both. Financial rights govern individuals’ relationships concerning money, while non-financial rights involve aspects that cannot be quantified in monetary terms, such as political rights, personal rights, and family rights. Mixed rights encompass both financial and non-financial elements, as seen in intellectual and literary property rights.
  39. Civil Law (Derivative Proprietary Rights): The emergence of a debt does not prevent the debtor from disposing of their financial assets, which can jeopardize the creditor with the risk of the debtor’s insolvency. To protect the creditor’s right to general security, Syrian civil law has provided creditors with a range of legal means aimed at preserving the debtor’s financial responsibility, ultimately safeguarding the creditor’s right to general security. However, these means do not guarantee the creditor against the risks of not being able to collect the debt fully. To address this concern, the concept of derivative proprietary rights was developed, aiming to reassure the creditor by allocating specific funds to the debtor to fulfill the debt. Syrian civil law refers to these rights as derivative proprietary rights.
  40. International Private Law 1 (Nationality): International private law is concerned with regulating relationships that involve a foreign element, as well as relationships with an international character. These relationships give rise to several legal issues, including distinguishing between citizens and foreigners by determining individuals’ nationality, the legal status of foreigners, identifying the competent courts to adjudicate disputes related to these relationships, and determining the applicable law. Each country is keen on defining its nationals, those who hold its citizenship, as they constitute the elements of the population within its borders. This is done through the regulation of nationality in its laws, specifying the rules for acquiring and losing nationality, based on considerations that serve its highest national interests.
  41. Tax legislation: Taxation is a financial tool employed by the state to deduct a portion of individuals’ wealth through coercion, without specific consideration, with the aim of achieving the public good. Since the earliest times, the existence of taxation has been linked to the presence of authority in society. The development of its concept is intertwined with the evolution of this authority and its objectives, as determined by political philosophy, social factors, and successive economic systems. Therefore, the tax system does not emerge in isolation and is not created independently of the influences surrounding it. Instead, it operates within a specific economic, political, and social framework.
  42. Administrative Justice: Administrative law is responsible for regulating administrative authority. It governs the relationships that arise between the state’s administrative bodies and individuals when exercising their public functions. Additionally, this branch of law defines the rules related to resolving administrative disputes that may arise as a result of these aforementioned relationships. Administrative oversight typically begins with an administrative complaint. However, there are instances where administrative oversight fails to achieve the desired outcome. In such cases, a judicial dispute arises, and the judiciary takes on the task of reviewing the matter. Legal actions related to administrative disputes are commonly referred to as “administrative lawsuits.” The jurisdiction of administrative justice is typically categorized into the following types: annulment, full jurisdiction, interpretation, and punitive jurisdiction.
  43. Transportation Contracts (Land, Sea, Air): The importance of air transport extends beyond passenger travel to include the transportation of goods and cargo. This is particularly significant due to the reduced risks and increased safety elements associated with modern aviation technology. Aircraft can efficiently bridge vast distances, connecting two locations worldwide in a very short amount of time. On the other hand, maritime transport is essential because it regulates relationships in which one party is a sovereign state or individuals governed by public law, as well as relationships involving private individuals.
  44. Private International Law 2 (Conflict of Laws): The involvement of a foreign element in personal relationships takes these relationships out of the scope of domestic law and places them within the realm of private international law. Consequently, they become subject to conflict of laws rules that determine which law should be applied to them. These relationships would not have arisen without recognizing the foreign element’s necessary rights to its presence. The law indicated by conflict of laws rules can be either national law or foreign law. Its identity can only be ascertained after a dispute arises and after identifying the parties involved, defining its elements, and understanding the facts surrounding it.
  45. Labor Law: National legislatures have gone beyond merely regulating the employment contract when it comes to safeguarding the working class. They have extended their reach to regulating labor unions and have taken steps to protect workers from risks that threaten their livelihoods, even if these risks are unrelated to their work. This is because workers often lack the means to address such risks due to their limited resources and savings. These risks may include illness, disability, old age, unemployment, and even death. As a result, labor law encompasses the rules that apply to individual and collective relationships that arise between workers and employers under their supervision and authority during the course of their work.
  46. Principles of Civil Enforcement: Civil enforcement is an essential component of a final judicial decision that has acquired a binding status, ensuring that the rightful party is granted their due. It is an integral part of upholding legal rights established by court rulings. One of the fundamental aspects of these rights is the authority of the holder to compel the party against whom the judgment was issued, or the debtor, to comply with the court’s decision or the obligations set forth by law. Legal proceedings can be won twice: once in the substantive court hearings, and again in the enforcement process. The principles of civil enforcement address both procedural and substantive issues, which are of paramount importance in legal practice. They hold great significance in terms of jurisprudence and judicial application due to their daily and practical relevance in implementing legal judgments and decisions.
  47. Sources of Obligations: The freedom of individuals to act is restricted by the principle of not causing harm to others, which imposes certain limitations to prevent actions that could harm others. These limitations can be imposed through ethical principles or by the law. When these boundaries are crossed, the individual who transgresses them is held accountable for the consequences, as determined by general rules that may entail penalties, whether criminal or civil. Responsibility encompasses the accountability of an individual who commits an act that warrants censure. It can take the form of moral or legal responsibility, either criminal or civil, contractual or negligent.
  48. Obligations under Natural Commitment: Natural commitment represents a middle ground between the mere moral duty imposed by public ethics in society and a civil commitment. It holds a stronger legal status than a mere moral duty because fulfilling it is not considered voluntary. However, it is less binding than a civil obligation because it lacks the element of legal liability. Therefore, the creditor cannot force the debtor to fulfill it. Natural commitments arise from civil obligations that have not been fully formed or as a result of a civil obligation transforming into an incomplete commitment. The judge determines the existence of natural commitment or a commitment that contradicts public order.
  49. Military Penal Code: The legal concept of military courts, military judicial procedures during wartime or domestic uprisings, the establishment and composition of military courts, their temporal and geographical jurisdiction, whether they are permanent or temporary military courts, the laws governing legal procedures before military courts, the principles applied during trials in military courts, the authority and powers of military judges, the issuance, execution, and appeal of military court judgments, individuals subject to the jurisdiction of military courts, the military appeals court, military crimes, crimes against the security of the state, dealing with enemy forces, perpetrators of military crimes, their accomplices and conspirators, repetition of military crimes, judgments in absentia in military cases, states of emergency, escape, disobedience, protection of the country’s constitution and social system.
  50. Real Estate Legislation: The real estate registry in each land registry area consists of a collection of land registers for properties within that area. These registers are consolidated into a registry, and they are connected therein either in a fixed or movable form. Each land registry area has one or more registries. The Real Estate Registry Law in the Syrian Arab Republic, issued by Resolution No. 188 in 1926, covers matters related to property identification and registration, duties of the real estate judge, rights to land use and disposition, property valuation, property registration, waqf rights, property liens, warranty and lease contracts, and more.
  51. Juvenile Delinquency Law: Crime is one of the dangerous social phenomena that have existed alongside humanity. The negative impact of crime is not limited to adult offenders and their actions; it also extends to young individuals whose characters have not fully developed. If society does not provide them with proper upbringing and support, these young individuals, despite their age, may engage in criminal activities that can fracture the fabric of society and leave it in shock. This is because such negative behavior is not expected from young people. The concept of juvenile delinquency and its various cases is defined, including the age of the offender, the committed act, gender, urban distribution, and the characteristics and causes of juvenile delinquency. It also covers issues related to educational, economic, legal, and judicial challenges. The legal framework for addressing juvenile delinquency is discussed, including principles of legal treatment for juveniles, objective judgments of juvenile delinquents, the progressive nature of juvenile responsibility, determination of the age of the juvenile, the responsibility of the juvenile’s guardian, rehabilitative measures, and penalties for juveniles. The law addresses the establishment of reform institutes, observation centers, probation, and restrictions on residence. It outlines common provisions between penalties and rehabilitative measures, the judicial process for juveniles, and assistance institutions. Additionally, it discusses the role of the Juvenile Chamber in the Court of Cassation, jurisdiction in criminal cases involving juveniles, the Syrian legal framework, prosecution and legal procedures, and the process of retrial.
  52. Drug Law: International Efforts to Combat Drug Abuse – Legislative Developments in Drug Law in the Syrian Arab Republic – Substantive Elements of Drug Crimes – Definition of Narcotic Substances – Types of Narcotic Substances According to Syrian Drug Law – Drug Smuggling, Manufacturing, or Cultivation – Place of the Crime – Elements of the Crime – Possession of Narcotic Substances – Trafficking in Narcotic Substances or Their Transportation – Crime of Supplying and Facilitating Drug Use – Import and Export of Narcotic Substances – Falsification of Material Evidence to Implicate Others in Drug Offenses – Unauthorized or Excessive Handling of Narcotic Substances – Penalties and Measures for Drug Crimes – Procedural Rules for Drug Crimes – Legal Provisions Concerning the Treatment of Drug Addicts.
  53. International Organizations: The International Organizations course aims to provide an understanding of international organizations, their components, forms, and mechanisms of operation. It covers their structure, charters, rights, duties, responsibilities, and legal authorities exercised under various circumstances, whether in times of peace or war, regardless of their operational location. It also includes an introduction to the general principles and rules governing international organizations, their classification, membership, and affiliation, as well as their organs, staff, and financial resources. The legal personality of international organizations is discussed, along with specific international organizations such as the League of Nations and the United Nations. Regional international organizations like the Arab League and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation are also covered. Specialized international organizations, including the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, are examined.
  54. Human Rights: The significance of human rights lies in affirming a set of facts, such as the fact that human rights are fundamentally linked to human existence. They are the result of long-term philosophical, social, political, and legal evolution and are a product of human civilizations. The reasons for the interest in human rights can be traced to what human civilizations have produced and the values brought about by revolutions, as well as the increasing international convergence and interdependence in international relations. This leads to a specific conclusion, which is that states care about human rights whether willingly or unwillingly, even though these rights are subject to abuse at both the domestic and international levels throughout different historical stages and by most countries.
  55. Human Rights: The importance of human rights lies in confirming several facts, such as the fact that human rights are primarily linked to human existence. They are the result of long-term philosophical, social, political, and legal development and are a product of human civilizations. The reasons for the interest in human rights can be attributed to what human civilizations have produced and the values brought about by revolutions, as well as the increasing international convergence and interdependence in international relations. This leads to a specific conclusion, which is that states care about human rights, whether voluntarily or involuntarily, despite the fact that these rights are subject to abuse at both the domestic and international levels in different historical stages and by most countries.
  56. Electronic Commerce: Electronic commerce encompasses all forms of commercial information exchanged between companies or individuals, based on the electronic exchange of data, whether written, visual, or auditory. This also includes the consequences resulting from the electronic exchange of data and commercial information and its impact on institutions and processes that support and govern various business activities. It includes information that is produced, sent, received, or stored using electronic or similar means, including, but not limited to, electronic data exchange, email, telex, fax, or photocopying.
  57. International Humanitarian Law: International humanitarian law consists of a set of rules aimed at mitigating the effects of armed conflicts. It protects individuals who do not participate in or have ceased to participate in hostilities and restricts the means and methods of warfare. Key agreements and conventions in international humanitarian law include the Geneva Conventions of 1949, the Additional Protocols of 1977, the Convention on the Rights of the Child of 1990, the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict of 2000, the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in Armed Conflict of 1954, the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of 1948, and various agreements related to economic security, family reunification, water, housing, protection from sexual violence, health, forensic medicine, arms control, and combating the spread and trafficking of weapons.
  58. The Judicial System in Islam: Definition of the judiciary, legitimacy of the judiciary, the judiciary during the time of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), the judiciary during the time of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, the method of appointing judges, the reference for judges in their judgments, the jurisdiction of judges in Islam, the right to litigation guaranteed for all, the qualifications required for judges, the removal and isolation of judges, Islam, puberty, reason, freedom, maleness, the meaning of justice and piety according to scholars, eyesight, articulation, competency, jurisprudential reasoning (ijtihad), legal actions and their adjudication, the conditions for the validity of a claim, the role of proxies in lawsuits, means of evidence, confession, proof, testimony, denial of the accused upon oath, conclusive circumstantial evidence according to the majority, scholars’ opinions on the validity of circumstantial evidence, circumstantial evidence in cases of prescribed punishments (hudud) and retaliation (qisas), a judge’s verdict based on knowledge or ignorance, justice between litigants, refraining from judging while angry, refusal of gifts, abstaining from adjudicating for oneself or someone whose testimony is inadmissible, and the permissibility of contesting judgments in certain situations.
  59. Crisis and Disaster Management: The nature of crises and their causes. Model crisis management. Disaster management and its causes. Methods of disaster prevention. Disaster risk management strategy.